Previous care work is not essential, but demonstrates commitment and is a useful opportunity to experience the role.
Adult nurses are the main point of contact for adult patients and their families, and play a vital role in teams of professional and medical staff. They work with doctors, social workers and therapists, and attend to a patient's comfort and emotional well-being as well as their medical needs. Typical duties of the job include:
- assessing and planning nursing care requirements
- writing care plans and records
- providing pre and post operation care
- monitoring a patient's condition
- carrying out routine investigations and care procedures, such as administering medication, injections and intravenous infusions, and taking patient samples, pulses, temperatures and blood pressures
- dealing with emergencies
- supervising junior staff
- organising workloads
- tutoring student nurses
- providing advice and promoting good health
- providing information, emotional support and reassurance to patients and relatives
Many adult nurses choose to specialise in a particular clinical field as their careers develop, such as public health, cancer care or theatre and recovery.
Shiftwork to provide 24-hour care is a common requirement. Some travel may be necessary between hospitals or trusts' different units. However, nurses are increasingly based in the community with a focus on preventative treatment in order to avoid unnecessary stress for the patient.
Opportunities exist for working abroad and taking career breaks. These may be used to contribute to the continuing professional development (CPD) which is a requirement of registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC).
Vacancies appear online, in newspapers, on the NHS jobs website and publications such as Nursing Times and Nursing Standard.
- NHS Trusts
- Residential homes
- Health centres
- The armed forces
- Private companies
- GP practices
- Day centres
The main route into qualifying as a nurse is to take a nursing degree in one of the four nursing specialisms: adult nursing, children's nursing, learning disability nursing or mental health nursing. Some degree courses cover two of these fields, and are known as 'dual field' degrees. Most nursing degree courses are three years long, with the exception of dual field degrees and nursing degrees in Scotland. Nursing degree courses provide a mix of formal teaching and practical experience.
You apply for full-time undergraduate nursing degrees through UCAS. Application criteria vary but you are likely to need at least 2 (more often 3) A levels or equivalent qualifications, plus a minimum of 5 GCSEs at grade C (equivalent to grade 4) including English, maths and a science (usually biology).
Graduates in a relevant subject such as life, health, biological or social sciences can qualify via a shortened two-year postgraduate course. The recognition process for your first degree is known as APEL (accreditation of prior experiential learning). You can find out more about accelerated nursing courses for graduates from UCAS and the NHS health careers website. You will need to check directly with institutions to find out if your degree course is acceptable for entry.
Nursing degree apprenticeships are now offered by a small number of NHS organisations. They are similar to nursing degrees in that they involve a mix of academic study and placements, but they are employer-led rather than being led by universities. Nursing degree apprentices are released by their employers to undertake academic study at degree level on a part-time basis, and also train through a series of practice placements. Level 3 qualifications (that is, A level or equivalent) are usually required, as the apprenticeship is at degree level. You can look for nursing degree apprenticeships on the NHS jobs website or the government's apprenticeship search. Applicants who have completed a nursing associate apprenticeship will be able to finish a nursing degree apprenticeship in a shorter period of time than other candidates, as the nursing associate apprenticeship will count towards it.
The nursing associate apprenticeship is a two-year training programme that is being trialled from 2018. Nursing associates undertake academic learning one day a week and work-based learning in a variety of settings the rest of the week. You need to have GSCEs in maths and English at grade 9 to 4 (A to C) or equivalent to apply. More information about nursing associate apprenticeships is available from the NHS health careers website.
All nurses working in the UK must be registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). When students complete their nursing degrees, their universities pass on their details to the NMC, which then gets in touch to let them know how to create an online account and apply for registration. There is a fee of £120 for this. Nurses are required to renew their registration and pay the registration fee each year, and must revalidate their registration every three years. In order to revalidate registration, nurses must have completed a minimum of 35 hours continuing professional development (CPD) and 450 hours registered practice over three years.
Nurse First, a pilot two-year fast-track programme for graduates who want to enter nursing, has recently been launched by NHS England, and combines hands-on experience and training with an educational course. The scheme's initial focus is training mental health and learning disability nurses.
Good interpersonal skills are vital for nurses, who have to communicate with numerous other medical and care professionals as well as being a key source of information and emotional support for patients. Other valuable attributes are:
- verbal/written communication skills
- empathy and sensitivity to patients' needs and concerns
- observation skills
- willingness to be flexible
- teamwork skills
- an ability to deal with emotionally charged situations
- organisational skills
- managerial and leadership skills
- attention to detail
- good health and fitness
- good hygiene
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